History of the United Kingdom and EU  Foot and Mouth Disease Epidemic - UK Outbreak 2001
History of Foot and Mouth epidemic in U.K. 2001-2
Part 2

United Kingdom Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak 2001Foot-and-Mouth Disease FMD viruses reproduction


Outbreak becomes Epidemic!
The Crisis Unfolds - from March 1st 2001


Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak UK March 2001


Use of the term "epidemic" rather than "epizootic"?
we used to use "epizootic" and "enzootic" but recently international veterinary epidemiologists rejected these terms (which would make them "epizootiologists" rather than "epidemiologists", and even more awkward words than that if they deal with bird or fish epidemics!) so back to the old words, which have the advantage that lots of other people know what we are talking about! international epidemiology terms

*Latest FMD News   History of UK FMD in 2001: Part 1   Part 3   Part 4   Part 5  Part 6  Part 7  *FMD resources


Foot and Mouth Carcase Pyres United Kingdom 2001 to Burn Livestock Carcasses


March 1st (day 11)

Many of the recent outbreaks are linked to known infected markets e.g. Carlisle and believed to have been incubating the disease since early last week.
Republic of Ireland: tests being undertaken on sheep sent to meat processing plant in Roscommon
New Outbreaks, total is now 32: including farms in Lockerbie and Canonbie in Dumfries and Galloway (Scotland); Longtown (Carlisle, Cumbria), Bishop Auckland, Co Durham in England ITN report
More outbreaks expected, South Armagh (N. Ireland) outbreak confirmed
Reports of livestock smuggling in some areas of UK, cattle have been seized in N. Ireland and sheep in Wales
Foot and mouth could cost £2.6 billion, vaccination is "last resort": NPA

March 2nd (day 12)
Outbreaks total 40 including a farm at Twynholm near Dumfries, farms at Great Warley (Essex), Redditch (Worcestershire), Bromham (Wiltshire), Kirkoswald (Cumbria), Dinnington (Tyne and Wear), Longtown (Cumbria), Bramshall (Staffordshire)

Scotland: 3rd outbreak confirmed in Kircudbrightshire, linked to source pig farm at Heddon-on-the-Wall
67,000 animals tracked   Cheltenham racecourse awaiting tests on farm 3 miles away
25,000 animals destroyed and incinerated on-farm so far, use of rendering being considered, but this will require air-tight transportation of carcases
Imports of meat increasing as UK supplied dwindle.
NO outbreaks confirmed in Republic of Ireland, army border controls to stop smuggling
UK Election in doubt   Switzerland website   Movement to abattoirs under licence

March 3rd (day 13)
Turkey: FMD has emerged again, in cattle in district of Aksehir in central Anatolian province of Konya.
In Belgium a total ban on farm animal movements throughout the country (cattle, sheep, goat, deer, horses, rabbits, poultry). Pigs and farm pets must be kept indoors, farms sealed off.
France: first suspected outbreak in S.E. of country, near Lyons, 80 sheep, now destroyed, initial lab. tests negative but clinical symptoms present. UK: 45,000 animals destroyed including 6,300 in-contact animals
Outbreaks total 52: 12 new outbreaks today, latest confirmed in County Durham, Tyne and Wear, Herefordshire, Cumbria, Lancashire and Oxfordshire

Licensed movements: Tuesday (BBC)   Intensive farming blamed? (Telegraph)   UK regions news (BBC)

Outbreaks: new outbreaks in Canonbie, Dumfries and Galloway plus first outbreak in Cornwall (in cattle at an abattoir in Botathan, South Petherwin)
Belgian suspect update: we have heard that this is a herd of 343 pigs in South-Western Belgium, now destroyed, 75 pigs had been imported from UK. Three pigs had snout lesions. Western Belgium (Vlaanderen) is a pig-dense area containing 7M pigs. There is a movement ban on animals and agricultural machinery for 20 km around the farm.
MAFF report to OIE   Belgium fears (BBC)   ITN report

March 4th (day 14)
17 Outbreaks today, total = 69: including 3 new outbreaks in Scotland, 1 in Cornwall, 3 in Tyne and Wear plus outbreaks on edge of Dartmoor (infected by animal movement from another Devon farm) and Broadwood Kelly, near Winkleigh, north Devon
Virus might spread to 50,000 cattle, ponies and sheep that roam freely on Dartmoor:
*News (NPA)   *News (BBC)   *download video (ITN)   *USA at risk (NY Times)
Denmark: cow with symptoms, initial tests negative, no outbreaks confirmed on mainland Europe yet.
Livestock movement under the new licensing rules has begun with 1,000 pigs taken to a slaughterhouse in Buckie, Banffshire, Scotland, most movements delayed until Tuesday.
Devon farm owned by Prince of Wales affected. Meat supplies running low in UK.
Compensation for farmers on the way (ITN)


March 5th (day 15)
Total outbreaks 74: 8th Scottish outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease at a farm near Beattock, Dumfries and Galloway
4 or 5 others today (2 or 3 in Devon, 1 in Herefordshire and 1 in Bishop Aukland, Co. Durham. Most or all recent outbreaks due to animal movements before movement controls
Some meat sales (poultry, fish, imported red meat) increased by 70-80%. Meat prices up around 10 per cent
Ban on horse racing is to be lifted in unaffected areas.

Belgium & Denmark:
suspect outbreaks now known to be negative. Belgium has now lifted nationwide emergency controls introduced on Saturday. France has announced that all transport of all susceptible animals is forbidden, unless they go directly to a slaughterhouse.
Dartmoor: the isolated outbreak there now known to have been from animal movement from another Devon farm. Plans under consideration to round up the 46,000 cattle and sheep on Dartmoor & move them to holding pens.

France news: NPA   Mainland Europe: Promed   France FMD antibodies: BBC
Map of latest outbreaks: Telegraph   Dartmoor concerns: Times

March 6th (day 16)
Livestock markets in EU banned: the Standing Veterinary Committee has banned all farm livestock markets for two weeks in the 15 countries of the European Union
Ban on UK exports of meat, livestock and milk products from Britain extended until at least March 27. Tyres of vehicles arriving from Britain in other EU nations must be disinfected BBC report

*More outbreaks expected in Scotland   *Graph of UK outbreaks: BBC

7 outbreaks today (total = 81): 4 in Cumbria, 1 in Co. Durham and 2 in Devon
Chief Vet. Officer expects that the outbreaks will reach a peak
today or in next few days, some outbreaks incubating since before movement ban may still appear up to early next week, more outbreaks possible in Devon and Scottish Borders
200 abattoirs now working, fresh meat will reappear in shops today
Veterinary practices that have been hit by FMD crisis shutdown of farms, now busy inspecting animals on-farm before moving to abattoir (an infected animal in an abattoir results in complete shutdown and disinfection)
France: suspect outbreaks have turned out negative
Foot and Mouth chaos: Telegraph   Licensed movements of stock: BBC

March 7th (day 17)
15 new outbreaks today making total of 96 including sheep and cattle in new areas: North Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Berkshire. MAFF give following analysis of today's 15 new outbreaks: Cumbria (4), North Yorkshire, Derbyshire, West Yorkshire , Dumfries & Galloway, Worcestershire, Berkshire, County Durham, Dumfries & Galloway and Devon (2) BBC report
There is growing frustration about the delayed updating of the MAFF website and confusion over number and location of latest outbreaks.
Radio Norfolk say that the laboratory results from the suspect outbreak in Hempnell are delayed due to pressure of work.
Yesterday's outbreak at Highampton, North Devon is the 8th outbreak in Highampton area and 15th outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Devon. About 100 cattle and 63 sheep on the farm. First Devon outbreaks of FMD was on February 25 at Burndon Farm, owned by livestock dealer William Cleave, who is involved in 13 farms in Devon and Cornwall.
Horse racing began again today after a 7 day ban.

Germany: tests on suspect animals in NordRhein-Westfalia have proved negative, control zones around Aachen and Neuss lifted
UK Sheep farmers are appealing for relaxation of movement rules because they need to move heavily pregnant ewes to lambing accomodation - March and April are major lambing months.
Animals are on the move in Norfolk, but only to abattoirs outside the county because of a suspect outbreaks.

Graph of outbreaks: BBC   Europe livestock markets closed: Telegraph
EU report on FMD situation last year: Argentina

March 8th (day 18)
11 outbreaks in U.K. today, making total of 107 (including 1 in N. Ireland), latest were Burgh by Sands, Nr. Carlisle and Brockhampton, Worcs : Cumbria (4), Devon, Dumfries & Galloway, Derbyshire (2), Anglesey (Wales), Essex and Worcestershire.

- FMD Paranoia? -
FMDV paranoia soars to new heights!  paranoia about people spreading FMD virus has now reached a height of 35,000 feet. Pat Gardiner has drawn our attention to an airline asking UK passengers not to use the toilet! - report

Europe FMD overview: FAO   Canadian & USA vets join UK FMD control: CBC
Racing hit by FMD measures BBC   FMD advice for Horse owners: MAFF

March 9th (day 19) - who's to blame? + an epidemic of bureaucracy
MAFF arrangements for limited movement of livestock, where necessary to safeguard animal welfare, introduced: an 'occupational' licence allows for repeated movement of animals within 0.5 km within a split premises. A 'local movement' licence allows a single movement of animals between points 5 km apart as the crow flies (subject to a total journey distance of 10 km), but only outside infected areas. There are complex restrictions on the availability of licenses.

*EU opinion on vaccination + FMD control measures: Standing Veterinary Committee
*Cause of crisis? - abattoir closures, intensive farming: European Commission
*Welfare of animals on farms under movement restrictions: MAFF

Germany: has announced a movement ban on all cloven-hoofed animals except direct farm to farm or farm to abattoir (i.e. no markets) starting on Saturday until at least 27 March.
20 new outbreaks in U.K. today, making total of 127 (including 1 in N. Ireland): Derbyshire, Cumbria (5), Devon, Powys, Dumfries & Galloway (4), Wiltshire (2), Somerset, Staffordshire, Gwynedd, Leicestershire, County Durham, Essex.
We have reports that sheep and suckler cows at Layer de la Haye, near Colchester Zoo, Essex, are involved and also Tawny Owl Animal Park, Painscastle (Powys)

In the 1967 epidemic there were 185 outbreaks after the same length of time according to BBC
Situation has become so bad that people are now to be empowered with information: (apologies for the sarcasm) MAFF have today circulated farmers and vets by post with advice on how to avoid spreading FMD, how to report suspected outbreaks and also details of the clinical signs in sheep
Netherlands: Minister of Agriculture, Laurens Jan Brinkhorst has ordered (yesterday evening) new measures to prevent risk of spreading FMD:
  • forbidden to transport cloven-hoofed animals TO or FROM France or Italy, even when they do not originate in these countries.
  • forbidden to transport horses TO or FROM the United Kingdom, even when they do not originate in UK.
  • Director of State Institute of Inspection of Meat and Animals (RVV), may forbid transport of cloven-hoofed animals TO or FROM any other member state

UK Chief Veterinary Officer was more cautious yesterday than earlier in the week, indicating that more outbreaks are expected for some days to come. There is concern that FMD symptoms may go unnoticed in sheep. Distribution of infected sheep from the Longtown market in Cumbria in the first week of FMD outbreaks has been a significant problem, but MAFF believe that there is little or no indication of continuing spread of the virus.
Huge economic damage from the nation-wide ban on livestock movements continues, fresh meat supplies are limited, shoppers are paying high prices, farmers' incomes are reduced and a massive bureaucracy is required to preserve the limited supplies of fresh red meat. It is now very clear that the two week old movement ban throughout England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland is "over the top" in view of the limited geographical foci of disease and in view of the fact that it was too late to stop the main movements of FMD virus. There are enormous practical problems where cows normally cross roads for milking and where animals need to be moved to fresh grazing.

The countyside "close down" in the United Kingdom continues, with many footpaths closed and the public strongly discouraged from going anywhere near livestock farms. A wide range of countryside pursuits have been abandoned. Loss of recreational facilities must be of some concern in a country with a concurrent epidemic of obesity - two thirds of the U.K. population are now clinically obese!
61,000 animals destroyed in UK control measures so far, a further 30,000 animals destined to be slaughtered.
Plans underway to render carcases of destroyed livestock rather than incinerate them on-farm. Questions asked in Parliament yesterday about alleged delays of up to 5 days in destroying carcases and up to 7 days in getting laboratory results.


Epidemic maps and history of epidemics Mapping Epidemics: a Historical Atlas of Disease (Reference) ** NEW! **
by Carter Smith, Brent H. Hoff, Charles H. Calisher
32 diseases, including HIV & Aids, E. coli, West Nile fever (introduced to North America in 1999), Legionnaires' disease, syphilis, and tuberculosis are covered alphabetically. A fact-filled compendium which includes an introductory section on the impact and mechanisms of spread of infectious diseases in the world. A glossary of terms is included. Coloured maps give a clear and instant overview of where and when each disease developed. There is also information on current global distribution, causative agent, mode of spread, clinical symptoms, treatment, prevention and control. A historical chronology goes back 10,000 years.
More Details


History of UK FMD 2001-2002
from Outbreak to Epidemic (this page) to Endemic to Depopulation to Disaster
to Timebomb to Rural rasure to Recovery to Healing & Transformation

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